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History Of India

Since last six thousands years, India history has passed through many diverse stages and societies and invasion from the outside world. Five thousands years ago, Indus valley civilization was started and two cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, presently in Pakistan were ruled by priests on the fundamentals of Hinduism. The ancient Indian civilization was famous all over the world for highly developed sense of aesthetics, an inexplicable script language, an astound ding knowledge of town planning and a highly stylish lifestyle. This civilization was spread out nearly one million square kilometers but outlived the ancient civilization prevailing in other parts of the world like Egypt. Finally, the Indus valley civilization perished due to the tectonic turmoil after surviving for thousands of years.

This civilization ended in around 1500 BC with the coming of the Aryans. It gave rise to the Vedic age with the upliftment of Aryans from the North.  And spread across different parts of the country along with their own culture and religious beliefs. It is the period when the four Vedas or the important books of Hinduism were compiled. Then in 567 B.C., the Buddhist religion was founded with the birth of Gautam Buddha. In the same period, also lived Mahavira, the founder of Jain religion. By this time, there were many caves and monuments built all over the Indian subcontinent, which are worth visiting.

After the two hundred years later, the Golden period arrived in the 4th century B.C. that left its imprints in the history of India. In this period, the greatest king of Indian history, The Ashoka led the Mauryan Empire to takeover the entire modern land of India. He later embraced Buddhism and built many Buddhist monuments at Sanchi, which has become a UNESCO world heritage site. His well renowned pillar, the Ashoka pillar at Sarnath, became the national emblem of India and dharma Chakra on it became the part of National flag. Gupta rulers spread across the North, while in South, spread different rulers like Cholas, Pandayas and the Cheras. These rulers traded with Europe and other parts of Asia till 1100s.

At the same time, the Christianity from Europe entered India and even earlier to it, the Jewish religion arrived on Indian land. After that in 7th century, a group of Zoroastrians or pareses landed in Gujarat and became the part of mix of religions in India, each of which has its own unique culture and distinct flavor.

Later in 15th century, Sikh religion was founded by Guru Nanak in Punjab. In 1192, Mohammad Ghori from Afghanistan came to India and took over several places in north including India. He went to his home and his general took over the control and became the first sultans of Delhi. From here onwards, the Islamic rule started in north part of India. After some years, Islam was brought to western coast by Arab traders and flourished in Kerala.

Delhi sultanate gained control over the entire Northern part for next 200 years, after which Timur came from Turkey and invaded India, when his army stole all valuables from the county and made the sultans of Delhi weak. After them, Mughals rule started from Northern part of the country. At the same time, the Vijayanagar Empire was set up in the South and gained strength.  

Later in 1600s, the Europeans, French, Portuguese, Danish, Dutch and British started arriving. All of them tried to have control over Indian territories and made friends and enemies, but it was the British who controlled many parts of the country and made it one of their colonies.

After long time of struggle, India got independence from British in 1947. During this process of independence, the partition took place and Pakistan was formed a separate nation. After independence, it has made a huge progress, dealt with great problems, developed industries and agriculture and is presently running a democratic government in the world.

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